I have since learned from another player that you don't actually have to have the old patch update version number to reset the download of the new patch.

Simply change the patch number to one digit lower. IE, if the patch number is 444620, change it to 444619. The result will be the same, forcing you to re-download the most recent version.

Excerpted from a closed thread that is no longer being updated.

Version Number for Patch update on 07/10/19 is: 444620

Version Number for Patch update on 07/17/19 is: 445899

Version Number for Patch update on 07/24/19 is: 446540

Version Number for Patch update on 07/31/19 is: 447962

Version Number for Patch update on 08/07/19 is: 448921

Version Number for Patch update on 08/14/19 is: 449968

Version Number for Patch update on 08/21/19 is: 450630

Previous version number - 350873
Current version number - 351593

If you've received this error, it means there was a data corruption during the patching process. This normally occurs when you attempt to patch while you have the game open playing on the opposite region. To ensure this does not occur, make certain you close the game completely before patching. The numbers above can be used in the history.txt document to identify a recent patch to redownload so that you only get those specific files. If you did not patch the game the previous week, we suggest using an older version number that is included in the below steps:
  1. Close Glyph/ArcheAge completely
  2. Go to C:\Program Files (x86)\Glyph\Games\ArcheAge\Live
  3. Edit history.txt
  4. Replace the version number with 296716
  5. Save and Close the text file
  6. Close Glyph and Attempt to patch once again, additional files will be required to download

If these steps don't work for you, try following the troubleshooting on this article.
Every other week, I have to roll back the version number in order to make Glyph work. If the version numbers are not updated weekly in the thread, older, more out of date numbers have to be used, which means a longer update will have to take place.

I will try and keep this post updated with current version numbers, as well as create a log of when this error appears, IE if I update during maintenance, or after. I know it's not an EU issue as I don't play on EU.